A semi-presidential government system shows a republic ruled and it is conducted by an elected president, a prime minister, and a cabinet. In this system generally the president is elected to serve for the difinit preiod which specified by its own constitution. On the other hand, the semi-presidential governments have popularity all over the world, especially in Western countries. Such this governance has taken many structure in different countries. Many countries of the world the president and prime minister have same powers. However, in other countries, either the prime minister or the president exhibits more executive powers than the other. Another form is where the president and the parliament share powers so that the prime minister answers to both the president and the legislature. In this world Ireland, Poland, Slovenia, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Mongolia, South Korea, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Finland, Russia, Lithuania, Sri Lanka, Haiti, Namibia, and Guyana are practice semi-presidential government system.
Significant Characteristics of A Semi-Presidential Governance
- Semi-presidential governments will be president-parliamentary or premier-presidential.
President-parliamentary republics are closer than pure presidentialism.
- In this government, The president is elected by the electorates.
- They choose the parliament and the cabinet who are accountable to both the legislature and the president.
- The prime minister can be removed by parliament’s “vote of no confidence” or a dismissal by the president.
- The premier-presidential style of governance entails which resembles pure parliamentarism.
Sometimes the prime minister and cabinet are selected by the members of parliament and they are exclusively responsible to the legislature.
- The president is not involved in the selection and dismissal of these two executive arms of government.
Significance of A Semi-Presidential Government System
To protect their nations many governments adopt semi-presidential governments against presidential dictatorship. In the world such this countries are Libya, Algeria, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Cambodia. So it is a way to achieve of political stability and balance of president seat. Then it is an effective way to share the power among the prime minister, president, cabinet, and legislature.
Disadvantage of Semi-Presidential Governance
There is many benefits of this system but it has a disadvantage. Here is a confusion about the specific roles of the president and prime minister.
Discussion on Ukraine
Since 1996, Ukraine’s Constitution has provided for a semi-presidential form of government, but these constitutional arrangements have proved to be unstable. Semi-presidential constitutions provide for a directly elected president, whoshares executive power with a prime minister and government who can be dismissed by the legislature. There are two main sub-types of semi-presidential government: (a) president-parliamentary, where both the legislature and the president can dismiss the prime minister; and (b) premier-presidential, where only the legislature can dismiss the prime minister.